LTA COP 2019

CODE OF PRACTICE FOR VEHICLE PARKING PROVISION IN DEVELOPMENTS (2019)

Purpose

This Code of Practice (COP) outlines the requirements of the Parking Places (Provision of Parking Places and parking Lots) Rules (“the Rules”) for provision of parking places and lots. It also cites examples of good practices in the industry. Diagrams, sketches and photographs are used to illustrate some of the parking requirements and practices.

The Rules stipulates the following:

  1. The number of parking lots to be provided for various uses; and
  2. The minimum dimensions of such parking lots, circulation aisle, access ramps and other details on the arrangement of the parking place and lots.
  3. The conditions, include payment of money, under which the Land Transport Authority (LTA) may grant a waiver on the parking provision.

In using the information in this COP, users should always make reference to the Rules. The Authority reserves the right to impose conditions on individual development proposal not covered in the COP, on a case-by-case basis.

Code of Practice for Vehicle Parking Provision in Development Proposals- 2019 Revised Edition

Introduction

There are two key considerations a Qualified Person (QP) must take when designing a parking place. The first is the number of parking lot requirement and the second is the layout of the parking place.

The parking place layout should be safe and functional to facilitate smooth and convenient passage for motorists. QPs should design the parking place with this in mind. While the minimum dimensions of a parking place stipulated in the Rules meet the lot and manoeuvring requirements of most vehicles in Singapore, provision in excess of the minimum dimensions may be made to further enhance the layout of the parking place.

Where land comes at a premium and competing uses in the development constraints the provision of conventional parking lots, mechanised parking systems offer a feasible option for providing parking lots. These systems typically operate either on a stacking basis or a storage basis. Car lifts replace the conventional ramp system for access to the parking place. Mechanised parking systems can be incorporated in a parking place as long as they meet the requirements stipulated in the Rules. QPs must give due consideration to the safety of motorists, pedestrians and vehicles in the design of mechanical parking systems, as it involves heavy moving machinery, to avoid harm and damage to property.

Disclaimer

The contents of the Code of Practice (COP) are subject to revision from time to time. A circular will be sent to inform the professional organisations of changes. Users are advised that this COP is a guide to the Rules. Where there are ambiguities or perceived conflicting requirements, the Rules will have precedence. Users are also advised to consult the LTA at as early a stage in their development as possible to ensure that the needs of the developer are met holistically.

While every endeavour is made to ensure that the information provided is correct, the Authority disclaim all liability for any changes or loss that may be caused as a result of an error or omission in the COP.

CHAPTER 1: PROVISION OF PARKING LOTS

Overview

The Parking Places (Provision of Parking Places and Parking Lots) Rules stipulate the parking provision standards.

This chapter illustrates the method adopted for the computation of the required number of parking lots a development should provide.

1.1 Parking Provision

The parking provision standards for the various development uses are given in Appendix A. Parking requirements are usually based on the quantum of the gross floor area or the number of units of the development uses.

Where a parking standard is not available for a proposed use, the QP may carry out his own assessment on the parking requirement and submit it with justification to the Authority for approval. This assessment should include the following information, where relevant:

  • Visitorship / staff strength and mode share;
    • Car / motor-cycle parking occupancy data of existing / similar developments;
    • Parking demand management measures (e.g. parking rates, allocation of parking lots);
    • Plans to improve first-last mile connectivity, travel and parking demand measures (e.g. shuttle bus services, car-pooling programmes, telecommuting initiatives);
    • Explanation of operations and/or operational needs of development.
1.2 Zonal Standards

Singapore Island is divided into four (4) zones.

Zone 1 comprises of the city (Restricted Zone) and the Marina Bay.

Zone 2 refers to the areas within 400m radius from Rapid Transit System (RTS) stations outside Zone 1.

Zone 3 is the rest of the island, excluding Zones 1, 2 & 4.

Zone 4 refers to car-lite precincts.

The boundaries of Zones 1, 2 and 4 can be found in OneMap.

1.3 Car Parking

The Rules allow for a range-based parking provision for developments island-wide. Developers may propose a parking provision within the lower-bound and upper-bound, without the need for additional approval from the Authority.

Residential developments that provide fewer car parking lots than the number of dwelling units will have to inform buyers of the parking situation upfront in the Option to Purchase and Sales & Purchase Agreement.

1.4 Motor-Cycle Parking

Developers are required to provide motor-cycle parking lots within their developments to prevent indiscriminate parking of motor-cycles on walkways and carriageways.

Building owners are also encouraged to allow despatch riders to park temporarily at their loading/unloading bays to facilitate delivery by motorcycles.

1.5 Loading Bays, Coach and Other Heavy Vehicle Parking Facilities

There are requirements for loading bays, coach, bus and lorry parking for Office, Retail, Hotel, School, Industrial and Warehouse uses respectively. Designers shall ensure that such facilities are adequately and appropriately provided so that parking of these vehicles do not overspill onto the nearby roads, causing disamenity to the neighbourhood.

Although residential developments are not required to provide loading & unloading bays, designers should incorporate in their design sufficient area within the development to facilitate house moving / delivery by heavy vehicles.

Other than residential developments, if a premise is used for overnight parking of heavy vehicles, the owner is required by law to apply for a licence from LTA. Please visit OneMotoring.

1.6 Bicycle Parking

The Walk Cycle Ride SG vision aims to make walking, cycling and riding public transport the way of life for Singaporeans and a means of enhancing liveability in Singapore. To help realise this vision, developers are required to provide bicycle parking facilities within developments.

1.7 Other Considerations

Parking provision serving a development must be made concurrent or prior to the completion within the site of the development use. Temporary parking provision cannot be considered as provision to meet the lower- bound parking requirement of a permanent development.

Deletion and conversion of existing parking lots is permitted if it does not result in parking deficiency in the development. That is, after deletion and conversion, the remaining number of parking lots must be sufficient to meet the lower-bound requirement.

Prior approval from LTA is required before a developer / building owner carries out any changes to the approved / existing parking layout or provision.

Where existing parking lots serving building(s) are temporarily displaced for construction work, interim-parking provision in the vicinity of the building(s) shall be provided.

The requirement for the number of accessible parking lots provided in accordance with the BCA’s Code on Accessibility in the Built Environment (Accessibility Code) shall be over and above LTA’s minimum parking requirements.

Use of mechanised parking system and car lifts are allowed. Guidelines for provision of mechanised parking system and car lifts are given in Chapter 3.

1.8 Computation for the Number of Parking Lots Required

The parking provision standards in Appendix A shall be used to calculate the number of parking lots to provide. The calculation for the number of parking lots required for the lower and upper bound is to be rounded to the nearest integer. It is important to note that the rounding off is done for each use before adding up to obtain the total requirement for the development. Common areas shared by two or more uses, are computed together with main use of the development. Refer to sample computation of parking requirement in Appendix C.

Developments within car-lite precincts (Zone 4) are intended to cater for a lower level of private car transport usage and will have better support for alternative transport options. For Government Land Sales (GLS) sites within Zone 4, the number of parking lots to be provided will be stipulated in the sale conditions upon the launch of the GLS site. Developers intending to develop land within Zone 4 shall consult LTA on the planned parking provision for the plot.

For Additions & Alterations and/or Extension proposals where the floor area information of the existing development is not available, the computation for additional parking requirement will be based on the increase in floor area of the proposal.

For Change of Use proposals, the difference in parking requirements of the proposed use and the existing approved use of the development gives the additional number of parking lots to be provided. Please refer to sample car parking computation for a change of use proposal in Appendix C.

A fully-restored development in a gazetted conservation area is exempted from parking provision if the development is conserved according to URA conservation requirements. Clearance for parking provision from LTA is not required for a fully-conserved building.

Fig 1.1 Conserved building with rear extension

1.9        Review of Parking Provision

Developers/designers must make effort to comply with the parking standards within the development boundary. LTA has the discretion to review the parking provision for a development, below the lower bound, if it is satisfied that it is technically and physically impossible to make full parking provision. The QP / developer shall also demonstrate that the deficiency would not result in illegal/indiscriminate parking.

For provision of parking lots above the upper bound, the developer must provide justifications for the overprovision. Information such as nature of business, staff population, visitorship, parking / travel demand management measures, traffic & parking impact study, etc. shall be submitted for evaluation.

Application to LTA for review of the parking provision should be made prior to submission of the proposed development to the Competent Authority for approval. QPs are to keep developers informed of any application to review the requirements. To ensure that developer accepts the application, a letter of undertaking according to LTA’s standard format by the developer is to accompany the application.

Please refer to Chapter 5 for submission procedure for application for review of the number of parking lots to be provided.

If the application to review the parking provision is accepted by the Authority, the developer is required to pay a deficiency charge as shown in Table 1.1.

Types of Parking LotsDeficiency Charge
Car Parking Lots$16,000 per lot
Motorcycle Parking Lots$5,500 per lot
Lorry, Loading & Unloading Bay and Coach Parking Lots$40,000 per lot
Bicycle Parking Lots$580 per lot

Table 1.1: Rates of Deficiency Charge

Where temporary written permission is granted by the Competent Authority, the deficiency charge payable for non-provision of the required parking lots is 20% of the full charge for each year or part thereof of the written permission up to 5 years.

CHAPTER 2: PARKING LAYOUT DIMENSIONS

Overview

The Parking Places (Provision of Parking Places and Parking Lots) Rules stipulate the minimum parking layout dimensions for cars, heavy vehicles, motor-cycles and bicycles parking places. When designing a parking place, QPs must ensure that all the geometric dimensions are complied with. Where necessary, provision in excess of the minimum dimensions should be made to meet the actual parking needs of the development.

Columns, ducts, services and other items that would affect the standard parking dimensions must be clearly indicated on the plans. These items, in a completed/constructed parking place, must not hinder the minimum dimensions specified in the Rules. QPs should also consider the good practices in Chapter 4 in their design and implementation of the parking place.

TerminologyDefinitions
Accesswayrefers to a driveway that provides access to the parking place. Accessway do not have adjacent parking lots.
Clearway Rampsare inclined floors that provide access between two levels. Clearway ramps do not have parking lots adjacent to them.
Inside Lane of Curveis to the innermost lane, nearest to the centre point of curve.
Inside Radius of Laneof   curved   accessway   and   driveway   is   the   distance measured from the inside curve edge to the centre point of the curve.
Multi-laneis where more than one vehicle can pass through at any given time and there is no physical separation/divider, such as kerbs, railings, parapets or walls, between the lanes.
Maximum Gradientis the steepest gradient of ramp measured along the centre line of the lane.
Outside Lane of Curverefers to any lane positioned after the innermost lane.
Parking Lotrefers to the space for parking of one vehicle. The parking lot should be rectangular, with the longer side known as length and the shorter side is the width. In parallel parking, the longer side is parallel to the parking aisle or driveway.
Parking Aislerefers to an access lane or driveway with adjacent parking lots.
Parking Angleis the angle measured between the longer side of the parking lot and the line of traffic flow of the aisle.
Parking Rampsare   inclined floors that provide    access   to   adjacent parking lots. These are sloping aisles with parking lots adjacent to them.
Single-laneis a lane where only one vehicle can pass through at any given time.
Traffic Flowrefers to the direction of vehicle movement.
2.1        Car Parking Places

2.1.1 Minimum Dimensions of Parking Lots

The minimum dimensions required of a car parking lot are as follows:

Width2.4m
Length4.8m
Length for parallel parking5.4m

The area of each lot shall be flat and free from kerbs and other encumbrances.

Fig 2.1.1a Minimum Dimensions of Car Parking Lots

Where there is an object or obstruction, adjacent to a lot, located within the middle 2800mm of the parking length, the parking lot shall be widened. If the obstruction is on one side, the minimum lot width shall be 2700mm. If the obstruction is on both sides, then the minimum lot width shall be 3000mm. Any large element above 175mm such as columns, walls or ducts constitutes an obstruction.

Fig 2.1.1b Parking lot obstructed by a wall

Text Box: 4800
Text Box: 2800

Fig 2.1.1c Parking lots with adjacent obstructions

Lot A: without any obstruction within Obstruction Free Zone Lot B: with obstruction on both sides

Lot C: with obstruction on one side

For parallel parking, where cars cannot be parked by reversing, minimum lot length must be 7.2 m. Where a lot is adjacent to any obstruction, the minimum lot length must be 6.0 m as shown in Fig 2.1.1d.

Fig 2.1.1d Width of parallel parking lots

Motorists tend not to park their cars completely inside a parking lot. In areas where parking lots are designed perpendicularly to each other, this would restrict the cars from moving off or it becomes impossible for the lot to be occupied. To avoid such undesirable situations, perpendicular parking lots shall have 300mm gaps vertically and horizontally as shown in Fig 2.1.1e and Fig 2.1.1f.

Fig. 2.1.1e Plan showing increase width of perpendicular lots

Fig. 2.1.1f Increase width of perpendicular lots

Dead-end aisles should be avoided wherever possible, as manoeuvring and parking at those corner-ends would be difficult for drivers. If dead end aisles cannot be avoided, the end-lot shall be widened to 3000mm to facilitate parking.

Fig 2.1.1g Increase width of end-lot

2.1.2 Minimum Width of Parking Aisle

The minimum width of parking aisle shall be as follows:

Parking Angle1-way Traffic Flow2-way Traffic Flow
Bays on 1 sideBays on 2 sidesBays on 1 or 2 sides
Parallel3600mm3600mm6000mm
30°3600mm4200mm6300mm
45°4200mm4800mm6300mm
60°4800mm4800mm6600mm
90°6000mm6000mm6600mm

BAYS ON 1 SIDE — 1-WAY TRAFFIC

BAYS ON 2 SIDES — 1-WAY TRAFFIC

BAYS ON 2 SIDES — 2-WAY TRAFFIC

Fig 2.1.2a Extent of parking aisle

Fig 2.1.2b Clear width of parking aisle

2.1.3 Minimum Dimensions of Clearway Ramps and Accessways

 Single-laneMulti-lanes
Width of straight clearway ramp and accessway3600mm3000mm per lane
Width of inside lane of curved clearway ramp and accessway4200mm3600mm per lane
Width of outside lane of curved clearway ramp and accessway4200mm3300mm per lane
Inside radius of curved clearway ramp and accessway4500mm
Gradient of clearway ramp and accessway1:10 (10%) Preferred 1:8.3 (12%) Maximum
Text Box: Clearway ramp,Text Box: Gradient 1:10
PARKING STALLS  

Text Box: arway rampText Box: Gradient 1:10

PARKING STALLS  

Text Box: arway rampText Box: Gradient 1:10

PARKING STALLS  

Accessway                     Accessway       Straight Inside radius Min 4.5m  

Text Box: Straight

Accessway                     Accessway       Straight Inside radius Min 4.5m  

Text Box: StraightText Box: AccesswayText Box: StraightFig 2.1.3a Example of clearway ramp and accessway

Fig 2.1.3b For multi-lane, the gradient is measured along the centre-line of inner lane

Fig 2.1.3c Example of straight, single & multi-lanes

Fig 2.1.3d Example of a single, straight lane

Text Box:  4200	 4200
Inside  Outside
Fig 2.1.3e Example of a straight, multi-lane

Text Box:  4200
Inside
NOTE:

More than one Lane without physical separation is considered as Multi Lane and It doesn’t depend on direction of traffic flow

Inside Single – Lane

Fig 2.1.3f Example of curved, single & multi-lanes

Text Box: Inside
Text Box: Outside
Text Box: Inside
Text Box: Outside

Fig 2.1.3g Example of a single, curved lane

Fig 2.1.3h Example of curved, single-lane separated by physical divider

Fig 2.1.3i Example of curved, multi-lane separated by physical divider

Text Box: Outside
Text Box: Inside Outside
Text Box: Inside

Fig 2.1.3j Example of curved, outside single-lane separated by physical divider

Fig 2.1.3k Example of U-turns

Fig 2.1.3l Example of single, curved lanes

Fig 2.1.3m Example of single curved lanes

Where a curve ramp/driveway meets a straight ramp/driveway, the joint must be extended beyond the tangent point of the curve.

Adequate transition of ramp grades at floor levels shall be provided.

Fig 2.1.3n Transition at the start & end of a ramp

2.1.4 Minimum Dimensions of Adjacent Parking Ramps (Sloping Floor)

The gradient of parking ramps shall preferably be 1:25 (4%) and the maximum gradient shall not be steeper than 1:20 (5%).

Fig 2.1.4a Example of a parking ramp

2.1.5 Minimum Headroom

The minimum headroom or height clearance from floor level to the underside of any projections including beams, direction signs, sprinkler heads, electrical fittings, etc. shall be 2200mm.

Fig 2.1.5a Minimum headroom clearance

Fig 2.1.5b Example of minimum headroom clearance

2.2 Heavy Vehicle Parking Provision

Heavy vehicle parking provision refers to lorry, coach and loading & unloading bays required under the Rules. They are categorised into three groups:

  1. Rigid-framed vehicles of length < 7.5m
  2. Rigid-framed vehicles of length > 7.5m
  3. Articulated vehicles (eg. prime movers, 20′,40′ & 45′ trailers)

2.2.1 Minimum Dimensions for Heavy Vehicle Parking

ItemsRigid-framed vehicles of length < 7.5mRigid-framed vehicles of length > 7.5mArticulated vehicles (eg. prime movers, 20′,40′ & 45′ trailers)
a) Parking Lot: Parallel parking Angled parking  9.3m x 3.0m 7.5m x 3.0m  14.0m x 3.3m 12.0m x 3.3m  19.0m x 3.3m 14.0m x 3.3m
b) Width of Parking Aisle: Parallel parking 30°-parking 45°-parking 60°-parking 90°-parking1-Way   4.5m 4.5m 5.0m 6.5m 9.0m2-Way   7.4m 7.4m 7.4m 7.4m 9.0m1-Way   4.5m 4.5m 5.5m 7.0m 11.0m2-Way   7.4m 7.4m 7.4m 7.4m 11.0m1-Way   4.5m 7.0m 9.5m 11.0m 12.0m2-Way   7.4m 7.4m 9.5m 11.0m 12.0m
c) Width of Accessway: On Straight1-way 4.5m2-way 7.4m1-way 4.5m2-way 7.4m1-way 4.5m2-way 7.4m
On Curve5.5m per lane7.5m per lane9.0m per lane for 40’ & 45’ trailer   6.0m per lane for 20′ trailer
d) Inner Turning Radius of Curve6.0m6.0m6.0m
e) Maximum Gradient of Ramp: Straight ramp Curved ramp      1:12 1:15      1:12 1:15      1:15 1:20
f)  Headroom Clearance4.2m4.2m4.5m (4.75m at ramps)

RIGID-FRAMED VEHICLES OF LENGTH < 7.5:

  1. WAY TRAFFIC
  • WAY TRAFFIC

RIGID-FRAMED VEHICLES OF LENGTH > 7.5M

  1. WAY TRAFFIC
  • WAY TRAFFIC

ARTICULATED VEHICLES (EG. PRIME MOVERS, 20′,40′ & 45′ TRAILERS)

  1. WAY TRAFFIC
  • WAY TRAFFIC
Headroom=4500(on flat ground)Headroom = 4750 (on ramp)  

Fig 2.2.1a Headroom for clearance articulated heavy vehicles (eg. prime movers, 20′, 40′ & 45′ trailers)

Heavy vehicles require a wider turning path, unlike cars. Due consideration shall be made to ensure that wider lane shall be provided for the entire curved path before gradually returning to the straight path. An example is shown in Fig 2.30.

Fig 2.2.1b Driveway design for heavy vehicles

2.3 Motor-cycle Parking Provision
 MinimumPreferred
Width800mm1000mm
Length2400mm2500mm

Developers are required to provide motor-cycle parking within their developments. These motor-cycle lots can be provided at corners or any available space within the parking place, preferably isolated from car parking. The lots should not obstruct movement of other vehicles and pedestrians. If provided next to car parking lots, it is recommended that a gap of 500mm be provided between car and motor-cycle lots.

Fig 2.3.1a Preferred dimensions of motor-cycle lots

Fig 2.3.1b Example of motor-cycle adjacent to car lot

Fig 2.3.1c Parking aisle for motor-cycle

2.4 Bicycle Parking Provision

Bicycle parking lots shall be ideally located at visible and convenient spots, taking into consideration of any cycling paths in the vicinity. If there are constraints to consolidate all bicycle parking lots in one location, it is acceptable to propose more than one bicycle parking location within a development. There should be, at least, 10 bicycle parking lots within a location.

Bicycle parking lots shall be separated from the car park area, where possible. The route taken for cyclists to reach the bicycle parking lots shall avoid vehicular ramps and driveways.

A bicycle parking rack shall be provided for each bicycle parking lot and anchored to the ground so as to allow cyclists to lock their bicycles with ease. The rack should support the bicycle upright by its frame. Designers should consider high density bicycle parking racks, where possible. Otherwise, designers may follow the common designs of single-tier or double-tier bicycle parking racks.

Providing end-of-trip facilities can improve user experience and promote the use of bicycles. Further details on end-of-trip facilities can be found in the section on Walking & Cycling Plan (WCP) found in the Code of Practice on Street Work Proposals Relating to Development Works.

Fig 2.4a Single-tier bicycle parking layout

Fig 2.4b Double-tier bicycle parking layout