TCVN 4319:2012

PUBLIC BUILDINGS – BASIC RULES FOR DESIGN

Preface

TCVN 4319:2012 supersedes TCVN 4319:1986.

TCVN 4319:2012 was changed from TCXDVN 276:2003 according to the provisions of Clause 1, Article 69 of the Law on Standards and Technical Regulations and Point b) Clause 1 Article 7 of the Government’s Decree 127/2007/ND-CP dated 1 August, 2007 detailing the implementation of a number of articles of the Law on Standards and Technical Regulations.

TCVN 4319:2012 is compiled by the Institute of Architecture, Urban and Rural Planning – Ministry of Construction, proposed by the Ministry of Construction, appraised by the General Department of Standards, Metrology and Quality, and published by the Ministry of Science and Technology.

1. Scope of application

This standard is applied to design and construct new or renovated public buildings including medical centers, sports, culture, educational facilities, administrative offices at all levels and other public buildings.

NOTE: Classification of public buildings is taken according to regulations on classification and decentralization of civil, industry and urban technical infrastructure.

 2. References

The following references are necessary for the application of this regulation. For any reference specifying the year of publication, the stated version is applied. For any reference without the year of publication, the latest version, including amendments and additions (if any) is applied.

TCVN 2622, Fire prevention and protection for houses and buildings – Design requirements.

TCVN 2737, Load and impact – Design standards.

TCVN 3890, Fire protection equipment for houses and buildings – Equipment, layout, inspection and maintenance.

TCVN 4474, Internal water drainage. Design standards

TCVN 4513, Internal water supply. Design standards.

TCVN 4605, Thermal engineering – Covering structure – Design standards.

TCVN 5502:2003, Domestic water supply – Quality requirements.

TCVN 5674, Completion in construction. Construction acceptance.

TCVN 5687:2010, Ventilation – air conditioning – Design standards.

TCVN 5738, Automatic fire alarm system – Technical requirements.

TCVN 6160, Fire protection – High-rise buildings – Design requirements

TCVN 6161, Fire protection – Market and Trade Center – Design requirements.

TCVN 6772:2000, Water quality. Domestic wastewater – Permitted pollution limit.

TCVN 7447, Electrical installation system of buildings.

TCVN 7505:2005, Rules for using construction glass – Selection and installation.

TCVN 7958:2008, Protection of construction works – Prevention of termites for new construction works.

TCVN 9385:2012, Lightning protection for construction works – Guidance on system design, inspection and maintenance.

TCVN 9386-1:2012, Earthquake-resistance works design – Part 1: General provision, earthquake impact and regulations for house structures.

TCXD 16:1986, Artificial lighting in civil engineering.

TCXD 29:1991, Natural lighting in civil engineering – Design standards.

TCXD 230:19982), Anti-porous foundation – Design and construction standards.

TCXDVN 264:20022) – Houses and buildings – Basic construction rules for the disabled to access into.

3. Interpretation

3.1 Building height

The height is calculated from the ground elevation of the building under the approved planning to the highest point of the building, including the upper floor or sloping roof.

NOTE: Technical equipment on the roof (antennas, lightning conductors, solar energy equipment, metal water tanks, etc.) are not included in the height of the building.

3.2 Floor height

The floor height is the distance between the two floors, calculated from the floor below to the next floor.

3.3 Vertical clearance

The height from the finished floor surface to the underside of the finished bearing structure or ceiling of that floor.

3.4 Number of floors

Number of floors of a house includes all floors on and above the ground (including the technical floor, attic floor, upper floor) and semi-basement.

NOTE: The basements are not considered as floors.

3.5 Floor on the ground

A floor with its floor level is higher than or equal to the ground level under the approved planning.

3.6 Basement

A floor with more than half of the height is under the ground level under the approved planning.

3.7 Semi-basement A floor with half of the height is above or equal to the ground level under the approved planning.

3.8 Attic floor

A floor located inside the space of the sloping roof where all or part of its facade is made up of a sloped or folded roof surface, in which the vertical wall (if any) is not 1.5 m higher than the floor.

3.9 Technical floors

 A floor for the arrangement of the building’s technical equipment. The technical floor can be a basement, a semi-basement, an attic floor or a floor in the middle part of the house.

3.10 Area of use

Total working area and service area.

The area of the rooms, the parts are calculated according to the net dimension from the outer plastering layer (including the thickness of the layer of wall lining material) and excluding the area of garbage pipes, chimney, vent pipes, electricity, water pipes, etc. placed in the room or that part.

3.11 Working area

Total area of the main working rooms and auxiliary working rooms.

NOTE: The working area includes the followings:

1) The corridor area incorporates classrooms in schools, waiting rooms, playgrounds in hospitals, sanatoriums, theaters, cinemas, clubs, etc.

2) Area of broadcasting rooms, management block, electrical panel room, switchboard, secondary room of the stage, presidency, technical room of projector, etc.

3.12 Service area

Total area of lobby, hallway, staircase, toilet area, buffer zone and technical departments.

NOTE: Technical departments are boiler room, pump room, transformer room, rooms for mechanical ventilation equipment, air conditioners, elevator equipment rooms for carrying people and goods.

3.13 Structure area

Total area of walls, partitions and columns calculated on the ground, including:

– Bearing and non-bearing walls;

– Walls and partitions;

– Columns;

– Door and window thresholds of all kinds;

– Underground chimneys, garbage pipes, ventilation pipes, power supply pipes and water pipes (including the tube inner section and thickness of each pipe);

– The wall recesses, the empty walls between the two rooms are not fitted with doors, with a width of less than 1 m and a height less than 1.9 m.

NOTE:

1) The structural area of walls, partitions, and columns shall include both plastering and lining layers of the wall.

2) The wall recesses, the blank walls between rooms are fitted with doors, from 1.0 m wide or more and 1.9 meters high (from the floor) shall be included in the area of the room.

3.14 GFA of a floor

Is the floor area within the outer edge of the floor walls. The area of corridor, balcony, loggia and other areas on the floor are also included in the floor area.

3.15 Area of attic floor

Measured at the floor elevation within the outer edge of the wall of the attic floor.

3.16 GFA of the house (building)

Is the GFA of all floors, including basements, semi-basements, technical floor and attic floor.

3.17 Building volume

The volume of the construction area of the house, the area of the floor or room multiplied by the height of the house, floor and room, including the technical floor.

3.18 Red boundary line

The boundary line delineates the part of the land for the construction of the works and the land area reserved for roads or technical infrastructure works.

3.19 Construction boundary line

The limit line allows the construction of houses and buildings on the land.

3.20 K1 ground coefficient

The coefficient shows the useful rate of using the ground. The smaller K1 coefficient is, the more the useful rate is. The K1 ground coefficient is calculated by the following formula:

K1 =  (1)

NOTE:

The K1 ground coefficient is usually taken from 0.4 to 0.6.

3.21 K2 volume coefficient

The coefficient shows the useful rate of using the work volume. The K2 ground coefficient is calculated by the following formula:

K2 =  (2)

3.22 Building density

Net construction density (netto) is the ratio of the land occupy area by the construction works on the total area of the land lot (excluding the land occupy area by the works such as decorative landscaping, swimming pools, outdoor sport grounds (except for tennis courts and sport grounds that are fixed and occupy ground space), aquariums and other architectural objects).

Aggregate construction density (brutto) of an urban area is the percentage of land occupy area of buildings on a total area of the whole land (the area of the whole area includes the yard, green areas, open spaces and areas in which the works are not built inside such land).

3.23 Land use coefficient HSD

Ratio of GFA of the entire building on the land area.

HSD =

4. General provision

4.1 Design of public buildings must ensure safety, sustainability, proper use, aesthetics, suitable to natural climate conditions and meet the requirements.

4.2 Public buildings in urban areas while new construction, renovation, refurbishment, upgrades must be in line with the detailed construction planning or urban design approved, comply with construction permits and rules in the local regulations on urban planning and architecture management;

4.3 It is not allowed to illegally occupy urban space in order to increase the area to use the project.

4.4 When designing public buildings, it must be based on natural climate conditions, hydrogeological conditions, public service facilities, the ability to build and install, supply materials and use local materials.

4.5 The height of public buildings depends on the approved planning projects, the nature of the works, the technical requirements and the respectful conditions of each locality to choose accordingly.

4.6 Public buildings are designed with construction levels according to regulations on classification and decentralization of civil construction works [1]

4.7 Public buildings to ensure the safety of life, sanitation, ventilation, natural lighting, artificial lighting [2], to ensure fire safety for buildings and structures [3].

4.8 Public buildings built in areas of earthquakes or on subsidence ground must comply with the provisions of TCVN 9386-1:2012.

4.9 Where public buildings have large lengths, it is necessary to design subsidence joints. The distance between subsidence joints is not more than 60 m, the distance between the expansion joints is not more than 15 m.

4.10 The structure and material of settling joints must be based on the location and required to take the proper measures for waterproof, fireproof, heat, resist termite.

4.11 The outside of the building must not use colors and materials to affect the eyesight and human health, and hygiene and traffic safety requirements. For new licensed construction works within the area that has been recognized as a cultural heritage, it is necessary to study the appropriate architectural form, use similar materials in colors and materials with regional heritage works;

4.12 Design and construction of public buildings must ensure for the disabled to access into as prescribed in TCXDVN 264:2002.

5. Requirements for the land and master planning
5.1 Requirements for the land

5.1.1 The land of public buildings should meet the following requirements:

a) In consistency with the land use criteria of the approved area;

b) Reasonable use of land and urban space;

c) In consistency with the demand for use;

d) Safety for fire, earthquake and flood prevention;

e) Gaining the economic, social and environmental efficiency;

f) In consistency with the level of economic development of each locality; g) Cost and energy saving, ensure structural features.

NOTE:

1) If there are cultural constructions, historical sites recognized by the State and local authorities, the relevant regulations must be complied with.

2) In case there is no detailed planning, it’s required approval from competent authorities for the construction of works in vacant areas, new land, renovating or building in the defense area, the area often suffers from floods, etc.

5.1.2 The construction land of public buildings must be arranged with gardens, trees, car parking and clear functional areas, convenient entry and exit arrangement for use and evacuation in case of emergency.

5.2 Requirements for master planning

5.2.1 The design of the master planning must be based on the utility of each type of work and the technology transfer line for a clear functional subdivision and must comply with the relevant regulations.

 5.2.2 The limited distance allowed from the works to the red boundary line and the construction boundary line is in accordance with the detailed planning and urban design of the area and in accordance with the regulations on construction planning [4].

5.2.3 The construction site is only constructed close to the red boundary line when the construction boundary line coincides with the red boundary line and is permitted by the construction planning management authority.

5.2.4 Where public buildings with many people such as cinemas, theaters, cultural centers, halls, exhibitions, fairs, besides complying with the relevant regulations, the following requirements must be met:

a) The site must have at least a side directly open to the street;

b) The main gate should not be opened directly to the traffic axis;

c) In the entrance area of the building, it is necessary to have a gathering area for people and vehicles in front of the entrance (referred to as a parking bay). This area is determined according to the demand and scale of the works;

d) The gate and the part of the barrier adjacent to the two sides of the gate must be deeply set back against the construction boundary line of no less than 4 m.

5.2.5 Where the public buildings are located on the main traffic routes, the location of the construction entrance must ensure the following requirements:

a) No less than 70 m from the main traffic crossroads;

b) No less than 10 m from public bus station;

c) No less than 20 m from the exit of parks, schools, architectural works for children and the disabled.

5.2.6 The layout and distance between works must meet the requirements of fire prevention, lighting, ventilation, noise resistance and environmental sanitation and ensure the following requirements:

a) Layout of architectural works must be beneficial for natural ventilation and lighting;

b) Good settlement of the relationship between immediate construction and future development, between permanent and temporary construction works;

c) Convenient for designing technical systems of works, including power supply, water supply, drainage, technical equipment, communication and other technical systems;

d) Synchronous design of interior, exterior, internal roads, garden yard, gate and barrier and other requirements (if any).

5.2.7 The installation of technical infrastructure systems such as water supply and drainage pipelines, communication, electricity and gas supply must not affect the safety of the works, and provide measures to prevent the effects of corrosion, subsidence, shock and load causing damage.

5.2.8 Roads for fire trucks and specialized fire trucks must ensure fire safety regulations for houses and construction works [3].

5.2.9 Number of basements in public buildings must be under the provisions in the approved detailed planning of the area and must ensure the following requirements:

– At least 2 ways to and from the basement.

– The slope of the ways to and from the basement is not larger than 15% and must be opened directly outside, independent of the entrance and exit of the building.

5.2.10 Based on the scale and category of the building, the number of people using the building to calculate the parking lot accordingly. Parking lots can be underground or hidden, inside or outside the building. The standard of a parking space is stipulated as follows:

a) Motorcycle and moped: 3.0 m2/ pc;

b) Bicycle: 0.9 m2 /pc; c) Car: 25 m3 /pc.

5.2.11 In the event that there is no approved detailed planning, the following factors must be followed for the design of public buildings height:

a) Width of the road boundary;

b) Height of the surrounding building:

c) Width of the building itself;

d) Function of use, scale and percentage of blocks and refractory levels of the building;

e) Height of operation of firefighting equipment of urban fire protection forces.

NOTE: Parts not included in the height limit of the building are the staircase, elevator, and water tank. The local drainage tube protrudes from the house surface but the ratio between the protruding part and the building must be consistent with the area landscape.

5.2.12 For public buildings that need protection, separate barriers should be protected from the street. The barrier must be open-aired and beautiful.

6 Requirements for architectural design
6.1 Floor height

6.1.1 Vertical clearance of rooms in public buildings is not less than 3.0m.

6.1.2 For buildings with large spaces (such as halls, auditoriums, multipurpose rooms, lecture halls, other public spaces), depending on the requirements of use and size of equipment but the height of the floor is not less than 3.6m.

6.1.3 Vertical clearance of basement, technical floor and attic is not less than 2.2 m.

Where the basement is used as a service or commercial space, the vertical clearance is not less than 3.0 m.

NOTE:

For public buildings with technical floors, the height of the technical floor is determined by design, regardless of the height of the floor, but it must be included in the building height to calculate the volume of the building.

6.2 Lobby, hallway

6.2.1 Design of lobby, floor lobby, hallway (horizontal traffic), transition space must ensure circulation in the building and take into account the possibility of escaping to safe areas if there is any incident.

6.2.2 In public buildings, the lobby is calculated according to the area norm of 0.2 m2 /person to 0.3 m2 /person.

6.2.3 The width of the hallway is calculated according to emergency exit requirements, fire prevention and the following requirements: – For side hallway: no less than 1.8 m; – For middle hallway: no less than 2.1 m.

6.3 Toilet area

6.3.1 The toilet area must be prioritized for direct lighting and natural ventilation.

NOTE: In case of natural ventilation does not meet the requirements, mechanical ventilation will be used.

6.3.2 Number of equipment and height of equipment installation in toilet areas must conform to technical requirements and use requirements of each type of public buildings.

6.3.3 The slot slope and the ground slope in the toilet areas are not less than 2% towards the drainage ditch or the receiving hopper.

6.3.4 The floor surface, the slot on the floor and the exposed surface of the pipe penetrate the floor and floor with the wall surface to be waterproof, water-prevention.

6.3.5 Toilet grounds and walls must use non-slip materials, do not absorb water, do not stain, are subject to erosion and easy to clean.

6.4 Risers, guardrails, ramps

6.4.1 The risers in the crowded place with the number of risers more than 3 need to have guardrails and handrails arranged on both sides.

6.4.2 The width of a riser is not less than 0.3 m. Height of a riser is not more than 0.15 m.

6.4.3 In all places adjacent to the outside (such as balconies, outside corridors, inside corridors, skylights, roofed houses, stairways outside the building …) must arrange guardrails and ensure the following requirements:

a) The guardrail must be made of strong, solid materials, withstand horizontal loads, calculated according to the provisions in TCVN 2737;

b) The guardrail height is not less than 1.1m from the finished floor surface to the upper handrail;

c) Within a distance of 0.1 m from the building surface or the floor of the guardrail, it must not be exposed;

d) Net distance between vertical bars is not more than 0.1 m;

e) Minimum height of the guardrail is specified in Table 1.

Table 1 – Minimum height of a guardrail

in millimeters

LocationMinimum height
1. Loggias and terraces of positions from the 9th floor or higher1400
2. Stairs, ramps900
3. Other positions1100

6.4.4 For the entrance with a riser to design a slope, it is necessary to ensure that the disabled have access to the slope from 1/12 to 1/20 and comply with the regulations in TCXDVN 264:2002.

6.4.5 The slope must be flat, not rugged, non-slip and has handrails on both sides.

6.5 Stair

6.5.1 Number and position of stairs must meet the requirements of using and safe escape.

6.5.2 Horizontal clearance of a stair depends on the usage characteristics of the building, complying with regulations on life safety [2], fire safety for houses and buildings [3] and related regulations.

6.5.3 When the stair changes its direction, the minimum width of the landing handrail is not less than the run. Any demand in carrying big goods can be expanded to match the requirements of use.

6.5.4 The height of a stair is not less than 2.0 m and a landing must be arranged. The length and width of each landing are at least equal to the minimum width of the tread.

6.5.5 Clearance height (excluding the first step on the ground floor) of above and below the landing is not less than 2.0m. Clearance height of the ladder is not less than 2.2 m.

NOTE: The clearance height of the tread is the vertical height from the tread of the lower tread to the inclined ceiling of the upper tread.

6.5.6 Stairs must have at least one handrail if the tread width is less than 1.0 m. There are handrails on both sides if the ladder is wider than 1.0 m (in case one side is a wall, it is allowed not to have handrails on the side of the wall). The handrail must extend to cover the last two steps.

6.5.7 Stair steps must have a width of not less than 280 mm and a height of not greater than 180 mm (except for stairs in preschool educational institutions whose step height is not greater than 120 mm).

NOTE: The height and width of all steps must satisfy the requirement that the sum of twice the height plus the width of the step (2H+B) is not less than 550 mm and not more than 700 mm. Where H is the step height; B is the step width.

6.6. Elevator

6.6.1. Houses and public buildings with a height of more than 6 floors outside the stairs should design an elevator. The number of ladders depends on the type of ladder and the number of people serving. In case of special request, it must be approved by the competent authority.

6.6.2. The design and selection of capacity, load and speed of the elevator must be based on the number of floors to be served, the maximum number of people to be transported during peak times, service quality requirements and other requirements. other technical requirements.

6.6.3. Elevator installation and safety requirements for use comply with relevant regulations [4].

6.6.4. For each building unit or service area that uses elevators as the main standing means of transport, the number of passenger elevators must not be less than 2.

6.6.5. Lifts must be located near the main entrance.

6.6.6. Elevator rooms must be large enough, with ventilation, moisture-proof and dust-proof measures and handrails arranged around. Control panels and instructions must be accessible to people with disabilities.

6.6.7. It is not allowed to arrange the water tank directly on the elevator room and not allow the water supply, heat supply, gas supply pipes and other technical pipes to pass through the elevator room.

6.6.8. Covering structure of the elevator room must be insulated, soundproof and anti-vibration.

6.7. Doors, windows

6.7.1. Doors and windows in houses and public works must have a structure and structure to ensure safety and sustainability, suitable to the function of the space used; have solutions to cover rain, reduce solar radiation and withstand wind pressure.

6.7.2. When using glass doors or transparent glass walls, there must be symbols or identification symbols, contrasting colors with the surrounding background, both from the outside in and from the inside out, and must comply with regulations on safety of life and health [2].

6.7.3. Windows opening to the common corridor must ensure that the height from the floor to the bottom edge of the door is not less than 2.0m.

6.7.4. Doors opening to escape corridors and stairwells must not affect the exit width of corridors and stairs.

6.7.5. The structure of the door must open and close smoothly, durable and firm.

Large doors that open and close by hand must have a brake device. Pull and push doors must have measures to prevent slipping from the rails.

Double-sided spring doors, white glass panels must be arranged in the upper part so that they can be seen.

Next to the area of turnstiles, automatic doors and large doors, there must be regular doors.

6.7.6. Windows, roof doors and ventilation doors must be securely closed, opened or adjusted.

6.7.7. Windows, skylights, enclosures, ceilings or glass roofs need to be safe to access for cleaning.

6.7.8. Using glass for windows and doors must comply with the provisions of TCVN 7505:2005.

6.8. Ceiling, roof

6.8.1. When designing ceilings and roofs of houses and public works, they must meet the requirements of insulation, waterproofing, rainwater drainage and ensure aesthetics.

6.8.2. Roofs with insulation layers must be calculated with heat, and at the same time, measures must be taken to prevent condensation, water evaporation and moisture for the insulation layer.

6.8.3. Using a roof with an insulated frame layer, this layer of air must have a sufficient height and not obstruct the ventilation path.

6.8.4. In case of slope design, the slope of the roof must be determined on the basis of structure, conditions of materials, local weather, refer to the provisions in Table 2.

Table 2 – Minimum slope of roof types

Roof structureMinimum slope
1. Cement tile, clay tile without lining1: 2
1. Cement tile, clay tile with lining1: 2,5
3. Asbestos cement roofing sheets1: 3
4. Metal roofing sheet1: 4
5. Reinforced concrete roof (with insulation and anti-cavitation)1: 50
6. Shaped steel plate1: 7

6.8.5. Using steel mesh cement sheet roofs or thin shell reinforced concrete structures, measures must be taken to protect against weathering and cavitation. Hard waterproof roofs must take measures to prevent cracking.

6.8.6. Roof material layers (including roof overhangs and attic floors) must use non-combustible materials.

6.8.7. In places with strong winds, measures must be taken to reinforce roof tiles and roofs using rolled materials.

6.8.8. For houses and public works with a height greater than 10 m, there must be stairs to the roof.

6.8.9. When using the ceiling as a technical floor or a suspended ceiling with a relatively large pipeline system, an attic floor must be arranged for inspection and repair, and at the same time, a travel floor should be arranged if required.

6.8.10. Roof drainage must give priority to external drainage. Roofs of high-rise buildings, with large apertures and relatively large water concentration areas, must be used for internal drainage.

6.9. Background and floor

6.9.1. The floor and floor of the rooms must be non-slip, no crevices, not abraded, easy to clean and resistant to moisture and moisture.

For sports buildings, the surface and floor must have good elasticity and sound insulation.

For hospitals and laboratories, floors and floors must be free from disinfectants or disinfectants and resistant to chemical agents.

6.9.2. The floor and the base of the wall in contact with the ground need to be sure to prevent water and moisture from the ground from seeping to the top of the foundation and wall and preventing the possibility of uneven settlement.

6.9.3. Floors of areas where water is used must ensure no standing water and prevent water from seeping through.

6.9.4. It is necessary to take preventive measures to avoid the risk of toxic substances on the surface or in the ground of the building or the use of toxic materials or additives to make paving materials, causing harm to health. human health.

6.10. Vent pipes and garbage pipes

6.10.1. Ventilation pipes in houses and public buildings must comply with the following regulations:

– Made of non-combustible materials; Do not use brittle and fragile pipes;

– The cross-section, shape, size and inside of the pipe must be convenient for easy air release, without obstruction, clogging, smoke leakage and back escape;

– The total cross-sectional area of the pipe is determined based on the amount of air to be sucked in to avoid the pressure difference between the exhaust riser and the atmospheric pressure;

– The vent pipe is not less than 0.7 m above the roof, and not less than 3 m horizontally from the window or inlet. At the top of the pipe, measures should be taken to prevent backflow.

– The smoke inlet of the vent pipe on each floor must have a cover.

6.10.2. Depending on specific conditions, it is possible to collect garbage on-site located on floors or arrange garbage pipes for the construction. In homes and public buildings, it is necessary to have measures to separate waste at source.

6.10.3. On-site waste collection is applicable to buildings that do not have a sewer pipeline system and the case of bulky waste with large volumes.

6.10.4. If garbage is collected on-site, the garbage collection place of each floor is arranged in hidden corners near the stairs. Garbage collection bins must be sealed, do not emit odors, do not leak, and do not drop during transportation. The transportation of the garbage collection bins must be done within the day.

6.10.5. If using a garbage storage room, measures must be taken to prevent odors and must have a water supply and drainage system for cleaning. The garbage collection area must be cleaned daily.

6.10.6. The floor and walls of the garbage storage room must use materials that are resistant to corrosion, waterproof, not moldy, non-slip, easy to clean and are difficult to burn.

6.10.7. If the garbage pipe is arranged, the distance from the door of the room to the nearest garbage pipe is not greater than 25 m.

6.10.8. The garbage disposal pipe should be arranged against the outer wall of the house, vertical, smooth, smooth, anti-adhesive, no leakage, no protruding objects to prevent garbage from falling down, anti-corrosion. The garbage pipe is isolated from other parts of the house by fire-blocking elements.

6.10.9. The garbage pipe should be designed in a circular cylinder with a diameter of not less than 0.5m. The pipe wall must have a thickness of more than 1.2 mm, which is resistant to water absorption, sound absorption, high heat resistance, and avoids the risk of fire during use.

6.10.10. Disposal pipelines must have equipment for washing and cleaning pipes and exhaust fans to deodorize, dry and release air.

6.10.11. Garbage door has a minimum clearance size of 500 mm x 500 mm, installed on the side of the dump pipe and 800 mm from the floor and has a lid with sealing gasket.

6.10.12. Garbage door made of heat-resistant steel with a thickness of more than 1.2 mm, coated with electrostatic paint and with sound and heat insulation, capable of resisting fire for 120 min.

6.10.13. The top of the garbage pipe must have a vent pipe protruding 0.7m above the roof. The cross-sectional area must not be less than 0.05 m2, and at the same time, there must be a roof cover to cover the rain and nets against rats and bugs.

6.10.14. The garbage collection chamber is located right below the litter box on the first floor. The clearance height of the garbage collection chamber is at least 2.5 m.

6.10.15. Garbage collection chambers must have a separate entrance and a door that opens to the outside. The door of the garbage collection room is isolated from the house entrance by a solid wall and separated by a fireproof wall.

6.10.16. The place for gathering and collecting garbage must be isolated from the operating spaces of the house and public works and be reasonably arranged and convenient for the garbage collection vehicle to easily enter and exit.

6.10.17. It is necessary to have a pit to collect water flowing from the garbage collection chamber into the dirty water drainage system or to arrange a local drainage pump.

6.10.18. The method of garbage collection and transportation must be compatible with the urban waste management method.

7. Technical system design requirements
7.1. Water supply, drainage and environmental sanitation

7.1.1. Water supply and drainage systems inside houses and public works need to comply with the provisions of TCVN 4474 and TCVN 4513. Standards of quality of domestic water must conform to the provisions of TCVN 5502:2003.

7.1.2. The distribution network of the internal water supply pipe should be located underground in the wall or in the engineering box. Valves located in underground trenches or technical boxes should have inspection doors for convenient management and repair.

7.1.3. For houses and public works that require the design of a hot water supply system, it is necessary to comply with relevant regulations and be suitable for the use requirements of each type of house and public building.

7.1.4. Water supply and drainage pipes should not be exposed under the ceiling of the rooms.

7.1.5. Drainage systems, sewers combined with trenches should have covers to ensure environmental sanitation.

7.1.6. Rainwater drainage system on the roof needs to ensure rainwater drainage in all weathers of the year. Rainwater on the roof is collected through collection funnels to the risers. The arrangement of the rainwater collection funnel on the roof needs to be calculated based on the roof plan, the allowable water collection area of a collecting funnel and the roof structure.

7.1.7. The rainwater drainage pipes are not allowed to leak, do not affect the architectural beauty and must be connected to the drainage system of the building.

7.1.8. The wastewater treatment system must ensure the quality of wastewater in accordance with the provisions of TCVN 6772:2000 before flowing into the drainage system of the area.

7.2. Lighting – Power Supply – Lightning Protection

7.2.1. Light

7.2.1.1. Lighting design of houses and public works should make full use of natural lighting and comply with the regulations in TCXD 29:1991.

NOTE: For workplaces, natural lighting needs to be ensured for more than half of the day time with the minimum natural illuminance value suitable for visual activities.

7.2.1.2. When there is no or lack of natural light in houses and public works, artificial lighting must be arranged to ensure normal working and operation. Requirements for artificial lighting must comply with the provisions of TCXD 16:1986.

NOTE Artificial lighting includes working lighting, incident lighting, lighting to disperse people, protective and decorative lighting, indoor and outdoor advertising.

7.2.1.3. When designing artificial lighting, it is allowed to use two lighting systems: general lighting and mixed lighting.

General lighting system includes: uniform general lighting and general area lighting.

The mixed lighting system includes: general lighting and spot lighting.

NOTE Only spot lighting should not be used for working lighting.

7.2.1.4. The minimum illuminance requirements of natural and artificial lighting need to be suitable for visual activities, ensure all normal human activities in the building and in accordance with relevant regulations.

7.2.1.5. In order to prevent the workplace from being glared by direct or reflected light when the sun is shining, glare can be reduced by placing a reasonable house orientation or by treating it with architectural solutions or anti-glare devices.

7.2.1.6. The lighting system in houses and public works must meet the general lighting needs; decorative lighting; protective lighting; emergency lighting, emergency exit.

7.2.1.7. It is necessary to have a separate lighting system and “Exit – EXIT” indicator lights in public areas to escape people when there is an incident or to be placed along the escape route in places where there is a risk of fire, explosion, poisoning, etc. The minimum illuminance on the indoor escape route is not less than 1.0 lux, outside the house must not be less than 2.0 lux. This system is connected to the emergency lighting electrical system, to the separate power supply from the main switchboard.

7.2.1.8. Protective lighting outside the house, lighting along the boundary of a house or work area to protect security and properties needs to ensure an illuminance of not less than 1.0 lux.

7.2.2. Power supply – Lightning protection

7.2.2.1. The power transmission line system must be designed independently from other systems and ensure easy replacement and repair when necessary. Installation of power lines and electrical equipment must comply with the provisions of TCVN 7447.

7.2.2.2. It is necessary to ensure uninterrupted, stable and safe power supply for homes and public buildings. When calculating the power supply, it is necessary to reserve a capacity of at least 10% of the total capacity of the building to supply electricity for lighting and equipment using electricity for advertising, decoration of the facade of the work, the dispatching system, signs and signals by light, sound, etc.

7.2.2.3. In addition to the power supply system according to the national grid, there must be a backup power source from generators with a high backup factor. Generators must be placed in a high place, suitable to avoid noise, vibration and heat from affecting other building parts.

7.2.2.4. Outdoor power supply systems must be submerged underground. Power grid division inside and outside the building must be done at the input distribution equipment or main distribution device.

7.2.2.5. The power distribution system is protected by circuit breakers; All switches and sockets connected to the mains must be protected by a grounding current interrupter; Do not arrange sockets and electrical switches in places where there is no manager. The emergency room control devices placed in public places must have specific signs and instructions.

7.2.2.6. Security monitoring and fire warning power lines must be installed separate from the dynamic power lines. Air conditioning and heating systems require separate distribution lines. Lighting and protective lighting systems need to be designed separately and independently.

7.2.2.7. The power supply for the emergency lighting system, the fire pump system, the signs indicating the escape route and the danger warning in case of fire must be completely separate from the other power supply system.

7.2.2.8. The power supply needs to take into account the possibility of using solar energy to partially meet the energy demand.

7.2.2.9. There must be lightning protection devices for all trunk lines to the distribution rack, and at the same time, the wiring rack must be connected to the safety grounding system.

7.2.2.10. Lightning protection systems for houses and public works must comply with the provisions of TCVN 9385:2012. Encourage the use of advanced lightning protection systems, ensuring aesthetics and waterproofing roofs.

7.3. Ventilation, air conditioning

7.3.1. Indoor spaces and public buildings must be naturally ventilated. Depending on the specific requirements of each case, mechanical ventilation or air conditioning equipment can be used.

7.3.2. It is necessary to use architectural and physical architectural solutions to design the covering structure to retain heat, avoid cold wind in winter, avoid hot sun in summer, and comply with the provisions of TCVN 4605.

7.3.3. Design of ventilation and air conditioning systems must comply with the provisions of TCVN 5687:2010.

7.3.4. Air ducts must be designed with non-combustible materials. Do not use brittle or fragile pipes. The cross-section of the pipe must meet the requirements of air transport. Ensure the tightness and smoothness of the inner surface of the pipe (plastered, glued with smooth materials, etc.) of the pipe so as not to contain condensable vapors, ensure the ability to clean the ductwork.

7.3.5. Holes for air ducts to penetrate walls, walls or floors of the building must be filled with non-combustible materials and ensure sufficient fire resistance limits of the partition walls through which the ducts go.

7.3.6. The air inlet of the air duct must have a mesh screen.

7.3.7. Exhaust devices must have a one-way valve to prevent exhaust gases from being pushed back into the house and have an explosion-proof solution for ventilation and air-conditioning equipment according to relevant regulations.

7.3.8. For houses and public works with basements, it is necessary to design a mechanical ventilation system, ensuring the air exchange coefficient is 10 times/h. For the parking area, it is necessary to ensure that it is always in the negative pressure area to avoid the spread of CO gas to adjacent spaces with occupants.

7.3.9. Inside the house and public works should not appear the phenomenon of dew, moisture, moisture. Design requirements for moisture resistance comply with the provisions of TCXD 230:1998.

7.4. Communication system, telecommunications

7.4.1. Communication and telecommunications systems in houses and public works include:

– Telephone system (external, internal);

– Loudspeaker system (internal);

– Fire alarm, breakdown and protection signal system;

– Alarm system, call bell, CCTV;

– TV system;

– System for connecting screens and internal networks;

– Security system, protection.

7.4.2. Communication and telecommunications systems must be synchronized and comply with relevant specialized regulations, meeting the capacity used in the immediate future and developing in the future.

7.4.3. The communication and telecommunications system needs to have a full range of equipment and distribution networks such as: digital switchboards, desk phones, extension phones, fax machines, internet systems, public telephone services.  

7.4.4. The design and installation of communication and telecommunications systems must ensure safety, convenience for exploitation, use and connection with the provider’s services. Able to replace, repair and ensure the distance to other technical pipes.

8. Requirements on fire prevention system

8.1. The design of fire prevention systems for houses and public works must comply with regulations on fire safety for houses and works [3], TCVN 3890, TCVN 2622, TCVN 6160, TCVN 6161 and approved by competent authorities.  

8.2. Sufficient outside access shall be provided for firefighting equipment to approach the building. Roads for fire trucks must meet the following requirements:

– The width of the road surface is not less than 4.0 m for each lane;

– The height of the space from the road surface to the top is not less than 4.25 m.

8.3. The parking lot must comply with one of the following regulations:

– An equilateral triangle has a side not less than 17 m, one vertex is at a dead end, and two vertices are in balance with both sides of the road;

– A square with a side not less than 15m;

– Round shape, diameter not less than 15m;

– A rectangle perpendicular to the dead-end road, balanced on both sides of the road, with dimensions not less than 5 m x 20 m.

8.4. Parts of buildings and public works belonging to groups of fire hazards according to different functions must be separated from each other by fire-blocking parts, having fire resistance levels, fire resistance limits and structural fire hazard grades according to regulations on fire safety [3].

8.5. Fire-blocking walls, used to divide the house into fire-blocking compartments, must be arranged on the entire height of the building and must ensure that no fire is spread from the fire source into the adjacent fire-blocking compartment when the building structures on the fire side collapsed.

8.6. The structure of the basement must have fire resistance grade of level I and fire resistance limit of not less than 120 min, separated by walls, partitions and fireproof with fire resistance limit of not less than 2.5h.

NOTE:

1) Where the basement is located a commercial – public service complex, it must be equipped with an automatic fire extinguishing system.

2) In case the basement is arranged as a parking space, it must meet the requirements for fire prevention, ventilation and escape in case of an incident.

8.7. The number and width of the exits from the rooms, floors and houses are determined according to the maximum number of people escaping and the allowable limit distance from the farthest place where people can be (born in life). active, working) to the nearest emergency exit.

8.8. The emergency exits must go from the first-floor spaces directly to the outside or must lead to the stairs and at least have two emergency exits in different directions. The exit doors must open to the elevator rooms on the lower floors and open to the terrace on the upper floors.

8.9. Basement and semi-basement must have at least two emergency exits when the area is larger than 300 m2 or when more than 15 people are present at the same time.

8.10. Clearance height of emergency exit is not less than 1.9m and clearance width is not less than 1.2m.

8.11. Exits are considered safe when the following requirements are met:

a) Go from the rooms on the first floor/ground floor directly to the outside, through the lobby to the outside, through the corridor to the outside and the stairs to the outside;

b) Going from rooms on any floor (excluding the first floor/ground floor) to the stairwell, to the corridor leading directly to the stairwell, to the common room with direct exit to the stairwell. ;

c) Going from the rooms to the elevator with direct exit to the outside or through the lobby to the outside.

NOTE: Motorized means of moving people (elevators, escalators) are not considered safe escape routes.

8.12. On the exits, it is not allowed to make sliding or folding doors, rolling doors, revolving doors.

8.13. The doors of the emergency exit and other doors on the escape route must be opened in the direction of the exit from the inside to the outside.

8.14. The allowable limit distance from the furthest position of the room, or from the furthest working place to the nearest emergency exit, measured along the axis of the escape route, must be limited depending on:

– Group of fire danger according to function and class of fire and explosion danger of room and house;

– Number of people who escaped;

– Geometric parameters of the room and the escape route;

– Structural fire hazard level and building’s fire resistance level.

Specific requirements on the allowable limit distance from the furthest location to the nearest emergency exit are given in Table 4.

Table 4 – Allowed limited distance from the room’s door to the nearest emergency exit

Fire resistance level of the buildingDistance (m) when density of people flows (person/sqm)
Up to 2From greater than 2 and less than 3From greater than 3 and less than 4  From greater than 5 and less than 5  Greater than 5
– From the room with the door arranged in the middle of the stairwell or in the middle of the exits to the outside
I, II, III6050403520
IV4035302515
V3025201510
– From the room with the door opening to the dead-end corridor or to the common hall
I, II, III3025201510
IV201515107
V15101025
NOTE: 1) The density of the flow of people to escape is determined by the ratio between the total number of people having to escape according to the escape route and the area of that escape route. 2) Other regulations must comply with regulations on fire safety for buildings and structures [3].

8.15. Each house and public work must have at least two exit stairs, one of which is adjacent to the outside.

NOTE: The maximum distance between two exit stairs is 50 m in case of corridor with fire door is 80 m. If it is a dead-end corridor, the distance to the ladder is not greater than 25 m.

8.16. The width of the stairs used to escape people, including the ladder placed in the stairwell, must not be less than the calculated width or the width of any emergency exits (doors) on it.

8.17. It is permissible to use an outdoor fire ladder instead of a second escape route. Exterior firefighting ladders used to escape people must have a width of not less than 0.7 m; the width of the step surface is not less than 0.25 m, the height of the step – not more than 0.22 m, the slope is not greater than 45o compared to the horizontal plane and must have handrails 0.9 m high.

8.18. The firefighting water supply system must be designed independently, with its own pump system to ensure water pressure for the fire hydrants. The firefighting water storage tank can be combined with the domestic water tank, but the piping equipment must divide the limit of use of each type.

8.19. The ventilation and smoke extraction system for fire prevention and fighting must be designed separately and must be made of materials that are difficult to burn or not combustible depending on the installation location.

8.20. In houses and public works, there must be a fire prevention control room in accordance with regulations on fire safety for houses and works [3] and automatic smoke detection and fire alarm systems should be installed in accordance with the provisions of this Decree. TCVN 5738.

8.21. Fire alarm devices and emergency alarm buttons are located in all areas, in places that are easy to see, easy to operate, easy to transmit alarm signals and notify the location of the fire.

9. Requirements for finishing work

9.1. Finishing work must comply with the provisions of TCVN 5674.

9.2. Materials for finishing houses and public works must be safe, sustainable, not dangerous, toxic, and not deformed; ensure the aesthetic requirements and suit the local climatic conditions; use colors consistent with the urban design and detailed planning of the area approved by the competent authority.

9.3. Architectural details, wall edges, wall corners, column edges… must not make square edges, sharp corners.

9.4. Floors, floors of rooms and stairs must meet the following requirements:

– No vibration, sag, no crevice, non-slip, waterproof, limit abrasion;

– Has a slope, easy to drain, easy to clean;

– Moisture resistant;

– Do not use materials or toxic additives to make paving materials.

9.5. Roof design solutions need to be suitable for local climatic conditions such as heat-proof, noise-proof, waterproof, anti-corrosion, anti-rain and storm-resistant. In urban, rural, remote, coastal, windy and cyclone areas, it is necessary to use ecological roofing sheets with design and installation requirements in compliance with TCVN 8052-1:2009 and TCVN 8053:2009.

9.6. It is necessary to have solutions to prevent termites in new constructions according to TCVN 7958:2008.

REFERENCES 

[1] QCVN 03:2009/BXD, National technical regulation on classification and classification of civil construction works and urban technical infrastructure.

[2] QCVN 05:2008/BXD, Vietnam Construction Code – Housing and houses and public works – Life and health safety.

[3] QCVN 06:2010/BXD, National technical regulation on fire safety for houses and works.

[4] QCVN 02:2011/BLDTBXH, National technical regulation on occupational safety for electric elevators.

[5] QCVN 01:2008/BXD, Vietnam Construction Code – Construction Planning.